Rice based cropping system

 Rice based cropping system can be described as mix of farming practices that comprises of rice as the major crop followed by subsequent cultivation of other crops. Inter-cropping of rice and other compatible crops is also widely practiced in many regions.

Rice based cropping system is a major cropping system practiced in India, which include the rotation of crops involving rice, pulses, oil seeds, cotton, sugarcane, green manures, vegetables, etc. Various rice based cropping systems have been reported from different parts of India ranging from rice-rice-rice to rice followed by different cereals, pulses, oil seeds, vegetables and fibre crops. Rice based cropping systems may include lowland and upland crops. So far, most people have been focussing on individual crops disregarding the fact that each crop is only a component of a cropping system.


Rice based cropping systems in Kerala

Rice inter cropping with millets and pulses mainly practiced by some tribal farmers in certain parts of hilly areas in the state. In Kerala rice intercropping with red gram, finger millet, little millet, maize and cowpea is practiced. The seeds of these crops are broadcasted during the months of April-May, and harvested during September-October. Little millet, cucumber and pumpkin are also grown as border crops.

 Other mixed farming practices are:

  • Rice-rice-pulse/oil seeds

  • Rice-pulse-vegetable

  • Rice-rice-fallow and rice-vegetable pattern

  • Rice-fish system




Rice based cropping systems in Tamilnadu

Tamil Nadu is one of the leading rice growing states in India. The state, which has a long history of growing rice, is endowed with favourable climatic conditions suitable for rice growing. The important rice based cropping patterns observed in the major growing districts of Thanjavoor, Thiruvaroor and Nagapatnam are:


Rice-rice-pulse/oil seeds

In Tamilnadu the first crop starts during June-July and is harvested in October and this crop is known as Kuruvai. Followed by this the second crop usually starts in October-November and is harvested during January-February. The second crop is known as Thaladi. Followed by the second crop, farmers broadcast pulses like black gram, cow pea, horse gram, and oil seeds such as sesame, etc in the paddy lands.

Other Mixed farming practices are: 

  • Rice-pulse-green manure

  • Rice-pulse/oilseeds

  • Rice-rice-rice


Rice based cropping systems in Karnataka

In Karnataka, rice is grown in a range of agro ecological zones like arid lands, hilly areas, wet lands and coastal plains. Various rice based cropping patterns can be seen in the different

agro ecological zones. In the state. The major rice based farming systems observed in Davangare, Haveri, Shimoga, Mysore, Mandya districts are listed below. 

  • Rice-rice

  • Rice-pulse/green manure

  • Rice-pulse/millets

  • Rice-other cereals/millets

Rice based cropping systems in West Bengal

In West Bengal rice is grown under varying eco-systems with varying climatic and hydrological conditions ranging from waterlogged and poorly drained areas to well-drained soils. Along with rice, various other crops like pulses, oil seeds, vegetables and jute are grown in most suitable areas compatible with various seasons.

Other Mixed farming practices are: 

  • Rice- vegetable-jute

  • Rice-pulse/oilseed-jute

  • Rice-fish system